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[转]超级详细—马卡龙制作要点指南:(法式)下集

Sweet Nothing:

A MacaronTroubleshooting Guide: Useful Tips and Advice to Master the French Delicacy


马卡龙制作要点指南:(法式)下集 


原文来自这里,作者将制作马卡龙所需要注意的所有细节都提及了,非常佩服作者的严谨。圆猪猪的英文水平有限,请了@landaifang 蓝带坊的店主帮忙一同翻译再发给大家参考。


http://foodnouveau.com/2011/12/destinations/europe/france/a-macaron-troubleshooting-guide-useful-tips-and-advice-to-master-the-french-delicacy/#perfect-macaron


GeneralMacaron-Making Questions


马卡龙制作问题。





There is somuch sugar in macarons! How much calories is there in a macaron? Can I makethem lighter?
Macarons aren’t exactly diet-friendly. After a quick research online, I’destimate that one average 1¼-inch macarons contains about 200 calories. Thepowdered sugar is necessary to the macaron’s texture – and considering mostmacarons are assembled with buttercreams or fruit jams, it’s a treat you shouldindulge in with moderation, but savor with a slow appreciation of its textureand flavors. Indeed, you’ll never see Parisians scarfing down macarons! Don’ttry to make macarons lighter; eat just one and enjoy it.



这里有太多糖在马卡龙里,多少卡路里?我能降低它们吗?


马卡龙绝对不是减肥者的朋友。在一个在线快速调查中,我一个英寸大小的马卡龙包含有200的卡路里,这里面的糖粉是对马卡龙组织起到关健的作用。而且马卡龙内馅也含有大量的黄油和果酱。不要尝试把马卡龙减低卡路里,吃上一颗好好享受吧。


 



What does“aging egg whites” mean?
Aging egg whites mean separating the whites from the yolks, and storing thewhites in an airtight container in the fridge for 1 to 2 days before using themto make macarons. Why do you need to age egg whites? “The reason behind it isto reduce the moisture content as much as possible while keeping the proteinbonds from the egg whites the same,” says Hélène Dujardin. Macaron master Pierre Hermé also says that the aging processincreases the whites’ elasticity. Ifyou skip this step, you might end up with a runny or watery batter, which willnot yield great results. So please age your egg whites, and take them out ofthe fridge a few hours before making macarons to bring them to room temperaturebefore beating.



“老化蛋白”是什么意思?


老化蛋白意思是使在制作马卡龙前,提前把蛋白和蛋黄分开,然后将蛋白存放在一个密封盆内,放在冰箱冷藏1-2天再使用。为什么你需要老化蛋白? 这理由是尽量减少湿气 蛋白。


老化蛋白的制作,可以增加蛋白弹性的,如果你不使用这个步骤,你可能会做成一份过于湿的面糊,那样就容易造成失攻。所以请提前制作“老化蛋白”然后保存在冰箱几小时,在使用前将它们取出室温回温。


 



Is there ashortcut to aging egg whites?
Hélène Dujardin has one: “When I get an urgent craving or an order for macaronsand I do not have egg whites, I just microwave the fresh egg whites for 10-20seconds on medium-high speed. It mimics the ageing process close enough to savethe day.” I’ve never tried this tip, but if she says it works, I believe itdoes.



有什么快速办法制作“老化蛋白”吗?


Hélène Dujardin说:“当我接到紧急订单时而手边又没有“老化蛋白” 时,我会将蛋白放入微波炉中微波10-20秒钟,这样的微波效果可以接近“老化蛋白”的存放日期。 我从来没有试过这种方法,但是如果这样能行的话,我相信是可以的。


 



What does itmean to leave the macarons to dry or rest them before baking? What should theylook/feel like after drying? What happens if I skip this step?
Drying or resting the macarons shells means to leave them uncovered, piped onthe baking sheets, for 20 to 40 minutes, in a cool, dry place. This step willallow the batter to form a thin skin. The batter will look duller and itshouldn’t stick to your finger if you carefully touch it. Skipping this stepcould yield inconsistent results and cause all sorts of problems (no feet,warped shell, etc.). See also ‘Can I skip the resting period to make mymacarons more quickly?’.



让马卡龙晾干,假如我跳过这一步会发生什么情况?


晾干马卡龙壳的意思是:将挤好在烤盘中的马卡龙放在阴凉和干爽的地方,放置20-40分钟以上。这个步骤将让面糊形成一个薄的皮。这面糊表面光泽变暗淡,用手小心的触碰表面不会粘手。


跳过这一步将发生很多问题 (没裙边,外壳破裂等等)







Can I makemacarons even if it’s raining/really hot/humid outside?
Humidity usually makes macaron making trickier because it prevents the shellsto dry during the resting period. Many succeed in making macarons in theseconditions anyway – but let’s just say the heart of summer isn’t the best timeto make macarons, even if it’s just to avoid heating the oven.



当下雨,非常炎热或潮湿的天汽,我能做马卡龙吗?


潮湿的天气让马卡龙制作更困难,因为很难晾干。尽管有很多人在这种情况下一样能制作成功。但是在盛夏时期就不是制作马卡龙的最佳时期,


 



What is thesize of the “perfect” macaron?
Macaron powerhouses like Ladurée sell two sizes: small (diameter about 1.5”[3.75 cm]) or large (diameter about 3” [7.5 cm]). What’s important, however,isn’t the size, but uniformity. Choose a size and stick to it. Templates helpmaking uniformly sized macarons; I provide links to printable templates inmy All About Macarons page.



多大的尺寸称之为“完美”马卡龙?


两种尺寸:小的:大概1.5英寸(3.75厘米)大的:3英寸(7.5厘米) 什么重要,不是尺寸,而是要保持大小一致,选择一种尺寸,就统一制作一种尺寸。也可以制用底部垫有马卡龙打印纸的方式来挤面糊。


 



How can I make sure my macaron shellsare all the same size?
The best way to make uniformly sized macarons is to use a template. I providelinks to printable templates in my All AboutMacarons page.



怎么确定我的马卡龙都是同样的尺寸?


最好的方法去确认马卡龙的尺寸是用一个画好的模型,如马卡龙打印纸.


 



How is theflavor incorporated into macarons?
Here’s a scoop: the macaron shells themselves don’t have much taste, the reasonbeing that the meringue/dry ingredient ratio must be respected and addingflavorings can offset the recipe and cause you to turn out macaron failure.According to French baking authority, Dorie Greenspan, who had the chance to work alongsidePierre Hermé, “Even though macarons comein a Candyland palette, they all taste pretty much the same becausethey’re all made from the same ingredients: egg whites, granulated sugar,powdered sugar and ground almonds. To get the full measure of a macaron, youhave to make sure that each bite includes cookies and filling.You get texture from the cookies, but you get flavor from the filling.”


Pierre Herméhas indeed confirmed this in his Macaron book, where he says he spent yearsstudying the intricacies of macarons, to finally figure out that the fillingwas key. Once he started concentrating on the fillings, he realized that hecould extend the macarons’ range almost to infinity.



如何给马卡龙增加味道?


这是一个观点:马卡龙外壳并没有太多的味道,原因是其配方比例严谨, 添加香精会导致你的马卡龙失败。依照法国烘焙权威Dorie Greenspan 说的 ,他曾有机会和PH一同工作:“即使它掉进糖果城堡,染上很多颜色, 其本身的口味都基本一样,因为它们都是使用同样的材料制成:蛋白,细砂糖和糖粉和杏仁粉。一个完整的马卡龙,每一口都能吃到壳和内馅。你能吃到外壳也就是其本身的组织, 也能吃到带有各种风味的内馅。 PH在他的马卡龙书里确认了这点。书中他说他花费多年时间去研究马卡龙,最终发现马卡龙的内馅才是关键,当他开始专注研究内馅,他才意识到内馅的创造之路是无穷无尽的。





Making macarons seems so time-consuming! How long does itreally take to make them?
Macaron making is divided into four steps:


1. Doing the prep work: Covering bakingsheets with parchment paper, measuring the ingredients, grinding the nuts,mixing the nuts and sugar together, sifting the mixture (20 minutes)


2. Making the batter: Beating egg whites,incorporating dry ingredients, piping the shells onto the baking sheets,resting the shells (20 minutes)


3. Baking the shells (about 15 minutesfor each batch)


4. Cooling, filling and storing themacarons (30-40 minutes)


It’s best toprepare your filling in advance to make sure it’s set and cooled when you’reready to fill the macarons. Doing so also divides the work and makes it seemless daunting. All in all, if your filling was made in advance, you should befinished within 2 hours. With experience you’ll get much faster to the pointwhere you’re able to whip up a batch in no time. Practice, practice, practice!



制作马卡龙真的很花时间,制作马卡龙要花多长时间呢?


1.准备工作:将烘焙纸放在烤盘内,称量所有材料,研磨杏仁,将杏仁粉和糖粉拌匀,将杏仁粉和糖粉过筛。(费时20分钟)


2.制作面糊:打发蛋白,晾干壳20分钟上。(费时20克钟)


3.烤制外壳:大约15分钟一盘(费时15分钟)


4.冷却,填馅,和包装马卡龙(费时30-40分钟)





Making Macarons


What should the beaten egg whites looklike?
The egg whites are beaten enough when they form a stiff beak when you lift yourbeaters out. The tip of the beak should not curl down (if it does, keep onbeating). Properly beaten egg whites should defy gravity and remain in the bowlif you turn it upside down. If you tilt your bowl to the side and they aresliding out, keep on beating.
Be careful not to overbeat! They should not separate in chunks or appear dry.If they do, you’ve gone too far. For a visual cue, see my How-To video (at 2:08). Once the eggsare ready, fold in the dry ingredients right away as egg whites can deflate orseparate quickly.



打发蛋白应该是什么状态?


打发足够的蛋白,当你提起打蛋头,打蛋头的尖峰是短而直小的尖峰,不应当弯曲。(假如没达到这个状态,继续搅打)正确打发的蛋白应该是倒扣盆,蛋白也纹丝不动,不会翻出来。倾斜打蛋盆,蛋白不会有流淌的迹象。否则就要继续搅打。


注意不要打发过度,打发蛋白不应该脱离打蛋盆,或者是变干燥。出现这样的情况,你就打发过度了。一旦蛋白打发了,马上和干性材料一同拌和,因为打发蛋白会迅速分离。







I’veoverbeaten my egg whites. Help!
Here’s a tip from Stephanie Jaworski of Joy of Baking: “If you accidentally over-beat theegg whites, add one unbeaten white and whip again until stiff peaks form.”Remove 1/4 cup of egg white to come back to the original quantity needed in therecipe.



我已经将蛋白打发过头了,怎么办?


这里有个提示来自Stephanie Jaworski of Joy of Baking:: 假如您意外的将蛋白打发过度,添加少许未打发蛋白,然后继续打发直到蛋白尖峰形成。取出1/4杯的蛋白,让打发蛋白保持原配方的份量。





My meringue stays loose, it won’tbecome firm. Why?


·You haven’t beaten the egg whites long enough. Keep onbeating.


·You used a plastic bowl or a bowl that isn’t impeccablyclean. Use a stainless steel bowl for better results (see ‘Do I really need touse a stainless steel bowl?’)


·There were traces of egg yolks in the whites. Be verycareful when separating the eggs.


·        Egg whites were too cold when you started beating them.Let them come to room temperature for better results.


If you stillcan’t get a firm meringue, try adding cream of tartar (see ‘Is cream of tartarnecessary?’)



我打的蛋白霜还是很稀,怎么样让它变硬?


·你没有将蛋白打发足够,继续搅打。


·你使用了一个塑胶碗或盆,那类盆不容易清洗,不易保持干净。使用一个不锈钢盆将更好。(看我真的需要一只不锈钢盆吗)


·这里有一丝蛋黄进入蛋白里了,分蛋时要十分小心,不要混入蛋白。


·打发蛋白前,蛋白过冷。在制作前,提前将蛋白取出室温回温。


·假如你还是没办法打成很硬的蛋白霜,可尝试放少许的塔塔粉(或蛋白粉)





How delicately/vigorously should Ifold the almond/sugar mixture into the meringue?
Fold the batter with confidence. Some methods will tell you to fold an exactnumber of times, but I believe it’s all aboutthe end result. To fold the almond mixture into the meringue, use aspatula to scrape to the bottom of the bowl, then bring the bottom to the top.Do this repeatedly until everything is well incorporated and no pockets of dryingredients remain. See the folding motion in my How-To video (at 2:25). However, youdefinitely want to avoid beatingthe batter, because overbeatingwill make your batter too runny and cause all sorts of problems (batterspreading too much, no feet, etc.). See also ‘What is the right batter consistency?’ below.



有些方法将告诉你去翻拌很多次,但我相信那样的话会容易失败。正确的做法是,拌合杏仁粉(TPT)进入蛋白霜中,使用一刮板盆的底板,然后带动它们从底部至上部,重复此动作直至所有材料都完全混合,看不到任何干性特质即可,不要过度搅拌, 因为过度搅拌将使你的面糊过稀而且会造成各种问题(面糊过稀软,无裙边,等等)





When should I add food coloring orflavorings?


You should addfood coloring or flavorings (such as lemon peel, pistachio extract or matchapowder) to the egg whites before incorporating the almond/sugar mixture. Assoon as your egg whites are stiff and ready, add the coloring or flavoring,fold the egg whites a few times, then start adding the almond/sugar mixture. Asyou incorporate the almond/sugar mixture, the color/flavor will spread evenlyinto the batter.



什么时侯加入色素或香料?


在打发的蛋白后,你可以添加食物色素或香料(如柠檬皮,香草精或粉) 到蛋白中,然后再拌入杏仁粉。当你的蛋白打发好后,立即加入色素或香料,翻拌几次,然后再开始添加混好的TPT.当你将TPT(杏仁粉和糖粉混合物)和蛋白霜混合时,色素或香料就会均匀的扩散至面糊中了。 






 



What is theright batter consistency?
According to Hélene Dujardin, “It should form a thick ribbon that seems toflatten a bit when spooned but with a sturdy consistency.” Many compare theright batter consistency to molten lava. Remember that it’s always better tounderbeat than the contrary: as you transfer the batter to the piping bag, andthen pipe the shells onto the baking sheets, the batter will continue to thin.If you overbeat from the getgo, you’ll end up with cracked or feetlessmacarons.



怎样才是正确的面糊


HéleneDujardin 说:做好的面糊应该像厚的织带,用汤匙挖出平坦但仍呈半固体状。有很多人描述拌好的面糊要像融化岩浆,但要记住翻拌不够总比翻拌过度好。当你将面糊装入挤花袋中,然后在烤盘上挤成圆形时,面糊会继续变稀,如果你过度搅拌,到最后你会得到一个破裂的外壳或是无裙边的外壳。





正确面糊的状态





My batter istoo thin/runny. What happened/what should I do?
You may have forgotten to age your egg whites, or perhaps you underbeat them,or you let the beaten egg whites rest for too long before incorporating thealmond/sugar mixture (beaten egg whites deflate quickly).



 我的面糊太稀,发生什么事了?我该怎么办?


你也许忘记提前制作“老化蛋白”


蛋白打发的不够


或者你让打好的蛋白霜放置太久。





What is the right oven temperature?Why isn’t there a definite ‘universal’ temperature everyone can use?
It’s a well-known fact that ovens are not all calibrated the same way. Someoverheat, others underheat: some ovens can even off 50°F [10°C]. We usually allget to know our own oven to deal with the discrepancy and, to be honest, manydishes that can withstand temperature variations. Not so with macarons.


Macarons areparticularly sensitive to heat, so it’s crucial that you adjust cooking timesaccording to your oven’s power. This may mean that your first batches will beovercooked or take lots longer to bake, but in the end, you’ll figure out yourmagic number, which should be between 285 and 315°F [140 to 160°C]. It’s bestto bake macarons for a longer period of time so that the shells rise slowly butconsistently. Some ovens have poor air circulation, making the temperature riseexcessively, so it may help to keep the oven door slightly open (with the helpof a wooden spoon) throughout the cooking process.



什么是这正确的烤箱温度? 为什么没有一个正确的通用温度供大家使用?


众所周知烤箱的温度不是一致的。有些烤过头,有些烤不够,有些烤箱的温差可以相差50°F [10°C].左右,在烤肉或蔬菜类时,烤箱温度有些差别时还不那么重要,但对马卡龙却不行。


马卡龙对温度很敏感,你要根据自己的烤箱温度来调节烘烤时间。有可能你第一次烤马卡龙会烘烤过度,或是不够,多尝试几次,最终你将找到合适的烤温和时间,最佳温度应是285和315(140至160)度之间,用低温长时间烘烤,那样的话外壳上涨的但持久些。有的烤箱空气循环差,不流通,在烘焙期间,可以借助一个汤匙柄,将烤箱门轻微的打开。





My batterbecomes watery or runny during the resting period. Why?
Your batter was too thin at piping time. Possible causes:


·Egg whites not aged (see ‘What does ‘aging egg whites”mean?’ and ‘Is there a shortcut to aging egg whites?’)


· Egg whites not beaten stiff enough (see ‘What should thebeaten egg whites look like?’)


·Egg whites were left to stand for too long beforeincorporating the almond/sugar mixture


·Use of liquid food coloring (see ‘What type of foodcoloring should I use?’)


·Batter warm or handled for too long. Try to work quicklywhen piping the shells as your hands will warm the batter inside the pastrybag. 



我的面糊在晾干的过程中变成水样,摊开了怎么办?


你的面糊拌的太稀。


·蛋白没有提前老化


·蛋白没有打发足够


·在拌入TPT前,打发蛋白放置的过久了。


·使用了水性色素


·拌面糊拌的时间过长,试着拌的时侯动作快些, 挤面糊的时侯也要快,不然你手上的温度就会使挤花袋中的面糊升温,造成消泡。





My macarons are spreading unevenly /are not round / are not equal in size. Why?


1.Make sure you use a pastry bag andtip. Spooning the batter won’t do!


2.Hold the pastry bag straight at a 90°angle when piping. See my How-To video for the method (at 3:48).


3.Batter is too thin


a)Egg whites not aged (see ‘What does ‘aging egg whites’ mean?’ and ‘Is there a shortcut to aging egg whites?’)


b)Egg whites not beaten stiff enough(see ‘What should the beaten egg whites look like?’)


c)Egg whites were left to stand for toolong before incorporating the almond/sugar mixture


d)Use of liquid food coloring (see ‘What type of food coloring should I use?’)


e)Batter warm or handled for too long.Try to work quickly when piping the shells as your hands will warm the batterinside the pastry bag.


4.Make sure you use clean Silpat mats orparchment paper, and that your baking sheets are straight and not warped.



我的马卡龙表面粗糙,不圆,大小不均匀,为什么?


·使用一只挤花袋和花嘴,不能用汤匙直接将面糊挖放在烤箱上。


·手持着裱花袋,成90度直角挤面糊


·面糊太稀


·蛋白没提前老化


·蛋白打发不够


·打发好的蛋白放置太久,才拌入TPT


·使用了水性色素


·面糊过热,或挤的时侯手握裱花袋时间过长。需要加快操作时间


·确定你的烘焙油布是干净的,平整的。


 



Can I skip theresting period to make my macarons more quickly?
Some people have told me they skip the resting period and manage to get goodlooking macarons anyway, with feet and all. Maybe this is luck and I certainly wouldn’trecommend doing it: just like it’s necessary to rest a pie dough toget a good, flaky crust, the resting period isessential to produce a good, consistent macaron. Says Hélène Dujardin, “Therest period creates a slight air dried crust on the shells that trapsin the heat at thebase and pushes the edges upward, creating those little feet.” So yes, resting the shells beforebaking is necessary. Unless you have access to a commercial size oven, you’llhave to cook your shells in batches, so most of your macarons will get thechance to rest anyway. Use the first 20-minute wait to clean up your kitchen orhave a cup of tea.



我想加快制作的时间,我能跳过晾干这一步吗?


有些人告诉我,他们跳过晾干这一步,可以得到很漂亮的外表,也许是他们的运气好。我绝对不建议那么做,就像做派面团一样,也是需要静置松弛一段时间才能得到一块完美的面团。  所以说要想做好马卡龙,就必须经过晾干的步骤。在晾干期间,空气干燥下的马卡龙表面形成一层薄薄的外壳,壳中的面糊在加热过程中因为壳的原因向边缘推挤就会形成裙边了. 所以晾干是必须的过程,除非你是使用一只商用烤箱。所以最好利用这晾干壳的20分钟去清洁你的厨房或喝杯茶吧。(夏季很难干燥,猪猪就在空调房里开着风扇晾干)


 



The shellsremain pointy after piping. Why?
Probably because you underbeat the batter and it remained too stiff. If it is,no worries – as I said before, it’s better to underbeat than overbeat. If yourshells remain pointy, just use a small pastryspatula to carefully smooth them out (see this technique inmy How-To video, at 4:20).



为什么挤好的面糊仍然留下一个尖头呢? 


有可能是你面糊翻拌的时间不够,所以它仍然成固状。不用担心,我前面说过,翻拌时间不够


好过翻拌过度。如果你的面糊仍然有尖头,使用一个小的硅胶刮刀,小心翼翼将尖头抹平整。









AestheticProblems After Baking


 No feet / crown


1. Batter is too thin



2. Batter was beaten too vigorously andall the air was taken out of it. For batter mixing pointers, see ‘How delicately/vigorously should I fold the almond/sugar mixture into themeringue?’ section above.


3. No resting period. The batter shouldhave lost its shine and it shouldn’t stick to your finger when it’s ready tobake. If the weather is rainy or very humid, the resting period may take muchlonger.


4. Resting period too long. A 20 to 40minutes resting period is usually enough.


5. Oven temperature too low. Try raisingyour oven temperature by 15°F [10°C].



无脚无裙边


1. 面糊太稀


   Ⅰ.蛋白没有提前老化


   Ⅱ.蛋白打发不够


   Ⅲ.在搅拌杏仁/糖粉前, 打发蛋白被放置时间过长.


   Ⅳ.使用了水性食用色素


   Ⅴ.手握时间太长,尽量快点挤好外壳, 因为手温在握住裱花袋时会融化面       糊.


2. 拌面糊时方法不对,造成消泡


3. 没有晾皮,要晾皮至表面无光泽,用手轻触表皮不粘手,方可入烤箱烘烤。


4. 晾皮时间过长。通常只用晾20-40分钟。


5. 烤箱的温度太低,尝试提高10度烤箱温度。






Uneven feet / Feet bursting


Oven temperature too high. It’s bestto bake at a lower temperature (285 to 315°F [140 to 160°C], depending on youroven) for a longer period of time so that the shells rise slowly butconsistently. Some ovens have poor air circulation, making the temperature riseexcessively, so it may help to keep the oven door slightly open (with the helpof a wooden spoon) throughout the cooking process.



裙边不平或爆裙边


烤箱炉温过高,最好是用低些的温度来烤(140至160度)注意检测实际温差. 用长一点时间来烤那样壳上涨的较慢,但稳定。





Hollow shells空心


a) Overbeaten egg whites. For egg whitepointers, see ‘What should the beaten egg whites look like?’ section above.


b) Shells resting for too long. A 20 to40 minutes resting period is usually enough.


c) Oven temperature too high, preventingthe insides to set, causing the meringue to collapse when the shells are takenout of the oven. It’s best to bake at a lower temperature (285 to 315°F [140 to160°C], depending on your oven) for a longer period of time so that the shellscook slowly but consistently.



空心


1. 过度打发蛋白。


2. 晾皮过久,通常20至40分钟足够。


3. 烤箱炉温过高,最好是用低些的温度来烤(140至160度) 用长一点时间来烤那样壳上涨的较慢,但稳定。







Cracked shells


a) Oven temperature too high. It’s bestto bake at a lower temperature (285 to 315°F [140 to 160°C], depending on youroven) for a longer period of time so that the shells rise slowly butconsistently. Some ovens have poor air circulation, making the temperature riseexcessively, so it may help to keep the oven door slightly open (with the helpof a wooden spoon) throughout the cooking process.


b) No resting period. The batter shouldhave lost its shine and it shouldn’t stick to your finger when it’s ready tobake. If the weather is rainy or very humid, the resting period may take muchlonger.


c) Batter too thin resulting in delicateshells. See ‘No feet / crown’ for possible causes.


d) Batter was overmixed. For batterconsistency pointers, see ‘What is the right batter consistency?’).


e) Batter was undermixed. If the batteris not mixed enough, too much air remains in the macarons, and the meringuedries out and cracks during the baking process.


f) Too much moisture in the batter:


  i.  Larger egg whites (see ‘What size of egg whites should I use?’)


  ii. Use of fresh egg whites. They need tobe aged (see ‘What does “aging egg whites” mean?’)


  iii. Use of liquid food coloring (see ‘What type of food coloring should I use?’)


g) Baking sheets not doubled (see ‘Why do I need to double the baking sheets?’)



外壳裂开


1.烤箱温度太高,最好把温度调至140-160C度,将烘烤的时间略延长。


2.没有晾皮,要晾至表皮失去光泽,而且用手指触碰表面不会粘手。假如在雨天或是潮湿的天气,晾皮的时间将更长。


3.面糊太稀


4.过度翻拌面糊


5.面糊翻拌的不够,如果面糊翻拌的不够,造成太多的空气在马卡龙内,造成蛋白霜变干燥而且在烘烤时会开裂。


6.面糊太潮湿


7.使用了过大的蛋白(造成蛋白过多)


8.使用了新鲜的蛋白


9.使用了水性色素


10.没有使用双烤盘。









Thin shells (thin cap with feet)
Overmixing. It’s no catastrophe! Chances are the taste will still be perfect.



薄外壳无裙边


 过过度搅拌





Shells that puff, then deflate
Never take the macarons out of the oven before the end of the cooking time. Youcan open the door and rotate the sheets, but never take them out. It’ll deflatethe shells and no amount of additional cooking can fix this.



外外壳回缩


在烘烤时间未到前,不要将马卡龙取出烤箱,你可以打开烤箱门和调转烤盘,但是不要把它取出来。这样将造成无法挽救的错误。


 



1.Warped / uneven shells


2.Batter too thin. See ‘No feet / crown’ for possible causes.


3.Too much moisture in the batter


4.Larger egg whites (see ‘What size of egg whites should I use?’)


5.Use of fresh egg whites. They need tobe aged (see ‘What does “aging egg whites” mean?’)


6.Use of liquid food coloring (see ‘What type of food coloring should I use?’)


7.Batter overmixed. For batterconsistency pointer, see ‘What is the right batter consistency?’).


8.Oven temperature too low. Try raisingyour oven temperature by 15°F [10°C] and see if it helps.


9.Resting period skipped or not longenough. See ‘Can I skip the resting period to make my macarons more quickly?



外壳不平整光滑


面糊太稀


面糊水份过多


用过大的蛋白


使用了新鲜蛋白


使用了水性色素


面糊过度翻择


烤箱温度过低,尝试将您的烤箱温度调高[10°C]


跳过了晾皮时间或是晾皮时间不够





1.Bumpy / lumpy shells


a)Almond/sugar mixture must be sifted.


b)Forgot to tap the pan against thecountertop before resting (air bubbles stayed in). See my How-To video (at 4:10).



表皮不光滑


糖粉+杏仁粉没有提前混合过筛。


在晾皮前,忘记拍打烤盘(造成空气驻留在面糊内)


 



2. Shells are too soft


a)Undercooked shells. Bake longer,checking every minute for doneness. Properly cooked macarons are firm on theirfeet when you tap lightly on the shell. If you see them budge even slightly, theyare not cooked enough.


b)Oven temperature too low. Try raisingyour oven temperature by 15°F [10°C].



外壳太软


烘烤时间不够,尝试烤的时间长些,尝试按每分钟的时间调整。


正确烘烤的马卡龙,是当你轻轻掀起外盖它的裙边也牢固的贴在盖上。如果你看到底盘上还有残留物,哪怕只有少许,也说明是没有烤透。


烤箱的温度太低,尝试将温度提高15°F [10°C]







Shells seem too dry or crunchy


Properly baked macaron shells alwaysfeel a little too dry at first. The magic happens when macarons are filled,assembled and then left to mature for 24 hours. Says the master of macarons,Pierre Hermé, “As soon as macarons are made, they are not ready to eat, butthey’re at their best after 24 or even 48 hours. An osmosis takes place betweenthe garnish and the biscuit. When freshly baked, the shell is hard and crisp,but it absorbs some humidity from the filling and its insides become tenderwhile the crust on the surface remains intact.” Just be patient, store yourassembled macarons in an airtight container in the fridge for 24 hours, andyou’ll see, your macarons will be fine (don’t forget to take them out early sothat they come back to room temperature before you eat them).



外壳看起来很干


刚烘烤好的马卡龙通常会看起来很干。当马卡龙填入内馅后魔法就发生了。 PH: 当马卡龙刚做好时不要马上食用。 将他们放在室温24至48小时。 新鲜烘烤下来后,外壳是硬和脆的,当其吸收了内馅的。 将您做好的马卡龙放入密封盒内放在冰箱冷藏24小时。


 



Brown or dark shells



  • Oven temperature too high. It’s bestto bake at a lower temperature (285 to 315°F [140 to 160°C], depending on youroven) for a longer period of time to ensure the shells will keep their nicecolor and won’t brown. Some ovens have poor air circulation, making thetemperature rise excessively, so it may help to keep the oven door slightlyopen (with the help of a wooden spoon) throughout the cooking process.


  • Baked on oven’s top rack. Always placethe baking sheet(s) on the middle rack.


  • Baking sheets not doubled (see ‘Why do I need to double the baking sheets?’)


  • Shells baked for too long




焦色或黑色外壳


烤箱的温度过高,最好将温度调至低度(285 to 315°F [140 to 160°C],略延长时间来烤制,这样将保持它们鲜艳的色泽不再变焦。有些烤箱有热风循环,可以使烤箱温度上升平均,所以请将烤箱门轻微的打开(用一些木汤匙塞在烤箱门前)


将烤盘放至在了烤箱的上一层,记得总要把烤盘放在中间一层。


没有使用双烤盘(至于为何使用双烤盘参见上文解释.)


烘烤的时间过长





Sticky on the bottom



  • Undercooked shells. Bake longer,checking every minute for doneness. Properly cooked macarons are firm on theirfeet when you tap lightly on the shell. If you see them budge even slightly,they are not cooked enough.


  • On Silpat mats: make sure the mat isthoroughly clean before piping shells on it. Or try parchment paper.


  • You tried to lift them off while theywere still hot or warm. Let them cool completely before lifting.If you feelshells are cooked enough but they are still sticky, try to dampen the bottom ofthe parchment paper (if that’s what you’re using) and let rest for a couple ofminutes. The moisture from the water should help the shells come off, but don’tlet them sit on wet paper too long or they will become soggy.




底部沾烤盘



  • 外壳烘烤不够,试着烘烤时间长些,每次以每份钟来计时。正常烘烤好的马卡龙,轻轻掀起外壳时底部的裙边也是会牢牢的粘在壳身的。如果裙边会粘在烤盘上,哪怕只有少许也说明未熟。








Uncooked insides
Keep on cooking. It’s best to bake at alower temperature (285 to 315°F [140 to 160°C], depending on your oven) for alonger period of time to ensure the shells cook through.



内内部未烤熟


继续烘烤,最好用低温烘烤(285 to 315°F [140 to 160°C] 具体考虑烤箱的温差, 略延长烘烤时间,确保马卡龙的内部也熟透。






Inconsistent batch (some are perfect, others are not)


1. Uneven airflow in the oven (rotatepans halfway through cooking)


2. Batter handled for too long and warmby the end of piping (try to work quickly when piping)



马卡龙外形不一致( 有的很完美,有的失败)


1. 烤箱烤色不均匀(在烘烤中途调转一次烤箱)


2. 翻拌面糊的时间太长,或面糊装入挤花袋中,手握的时间过长。尝试挤面糊的时侯动作快些。





My shells are not cooked through evenafter 15 minutes in the oven. What should I do?
Don't take them out of the oven and don’t raise the oven temperature. Just bakethem longer! It’s best to bake at a lower temperature for a longer period oftime so that the shells rise slowly but consistently.



我的马卡龙在烤箱里烤了15分钟还是没有熟透,我该怎么办?


不要将它们从烤箱取出,也不要提高烤箱的温度,只是要烤的时间长一些。 最好用低温长时间烘烤,这样外壳以慢速并稳定的速度上涨。





Preserving Macarons


Freshly mademacarons are ready to be enjoyed after 24h of resting time (see explanationunder ‘Shells seem too dry or crunchy’), and they should be eaten within 4to 5 days. They should always be stored in an airtight container in the fridge.Take them out of the fridge 15-20 minutes before eating so they come back toroom temperature; that way, their flavor will be at its best.



保存马卡龙


新烤好的马卡龙要放至24小时后适合食用,建议在4-5天内吃完。要使用密封的保鲜盒保存在冰箱冷藏室 。在食用前从冰箱中取出放置室温15-20分钟上,以达到最佳的食用效果。





If you plan ongiving macarons as a gift, don’t forget to write a “best before” date on thepackaging to make sure they will be enjoyed at their prime.



如果您计划将马卡龙当作礼物赠送朋友,不要忘记写一个“最佳食用日期”在包装上, 让朋友可以在最佳尝味期食用。





A little knownfact is that macarons withstand freezing very well. Store assembledmacarons in an airtight container, then freeze for up to 4 to5 months. This is great because one batch makes many macarons. Once themacarons are frozen, you can take out the exact quantity you need and keep theother at their freshest. Simply let the macarons rest at room temperature for30-35 minutes and they’ll be ready to eat. Note that freezing works better withcreamy fillings such as buttercreams and ganaches. Fillings that are morehumid, such as jams, can excessively moisten the shells, making them lose theircrunch completely. If you plan on filling your macarons with jam, you’re betteroff freezing the shells alone, then deforst and assemble them on the day youplan to serve them. 



马卡龙有很好的抗冻性,将马卡龙放入密封盒内,放入冰箱冷冻可以放至4-5个月。这样就可以一次做很多马卡龙了,你可以取出具体需要的数量,其他留在冰箱中保持新鲜. 在食用前将马卡龙取出室温回温30-35分钟就可以了。要注意的是 冰冻的马卡龙的内馅最好是用奶油霜的或甘那许的,而如果内馅含水量太大的,比如果酱就会将外壳浸湿,使得外壳完全失去脆性。假如您要制作果酱内馅的马卡龙,您最好将它们的外壳单独密封保存,在您要食用的时侯再制作内馅,组装外壳。



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