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[转]超级详细—马卡龙制作要点指南:(法式)上集

Sweet Nothing:

原文来自这里,作者将制作马卡龙所需要注意的所有细节都提及了,非常佩服作者的严谨。圆猪猪的英文水平有限,请了@landaifang 蓝带坊的店主帮忙一同翻译再发给大家参考。


http://foodnouveau.com/2011/12/destinations/europe/france/a-macaron-troubleshooting-guide-useful-tips-and-advice-to-master-the-french-delicacy/#perfect-macaron





大约两年前我编写了“如何制作马卡龙”,至今仍然有许多人在我博客上询问相关问题。在我回答了成千上百个读者的“用什么样的工具?”“为什么我的马卡龙没有裙边”等等各种问题后。我想写一篇更详细的制作中的要点指南是势在必行了。我收集了本人制作马卡龙的经验和阅读了大量的相关马卡龙的博客,文章,书籍(资料来源我有写在文章底部)。我相信这篇博客将解答大部分新手关于马卡龙的疑问。如果您读过这篇文章,觉得我有遗漏什么,请给我留言,我将随时回答和更新


Almost twoyears after being published, my illustrated ‘How To Make Macarons’ post is still by far the most popularpost on my blog. After answering to hundreds of readers posting all kinds ofquestions, from which equipment to use to why they can’t “get feet”, I thoughtwriting a troubleshooting guide was in order. I gathered all this info throughmacaron making experience and by reading dozens of articles, blog posts andbooks on the subject (sources are cited below when I quote from them). Ibelieve this post will answer most (if not all!) questions macaron novicesmight have. If after reading this page you think I forgot something,please send me a line or write a comment below and I will edit my post toalways keep it up-to-date.





IMPORTANTNOTE: Thistroubleshooting guide is about the classic, French method of making macarons,which doesn’t involve an Italian meringue.


请注意:这个疑难要点指南是关于传统的法式卡马龙,而非意式马卡龙。




WHAT SHOULD A ‘PERFECT MACARON’ LOOK LIKE? 


Here’s a list of essential aesthetic traits:


·Shells should be perfectly round andshow ‘feet’ or a crown at their base


·Top of shells should be perfectlysmooth


·Bottom of shells should be perfectlyflat


·Shells should be shiny, and the choiceof color should be assorted to the flavor


·Shells should all be of the same size


·The feet should not be larger than thetop of the shell


·Filling should be visible and not berunny


Of course,very few macarons feature all of these standards at once. The list may sounddaunting when the novice baker attempts to make macarons for the first time,but with patience and meticulousness, I believe the home cook can achieveresults that rival macarons made by masters like Pierre Hermé or Ladurée.


A MacaronTroubleshooting Guide: Useful Tips and Advice to Master the French Delicacy


何为“完美”的马卡龙?


以下是马卡龙的基本审美特征:


1.壳要丰满圆润,底部出现裙边。


2.壳的顶部要非常的圆滑


3.底部要足够平坦。


4.外壳要有光泽,选择的色泽要和味道相匹配。


5.壳的大小需要一致。


6.裙边不能大于外壳


7.夹馅后可见填充内馅,内馅要成半固状,不要流淌。


当然, 很少有马卡龙能一下就满足上面所有标准, 这个审美特征可能会导致很多新手不敢去尝试当他们开始制作马卡龙的时候, 但是有足够的耐心和谨慎,我相信家庭主妇们一样可以做出很好的马卡龙和大师Pierre Hermé or Ladurée 比一比的.





About theIngredients


关于材料


What size of egg whites should I use?
My recipes (and most macaron recipes, in general) use large egg whites.


我要用多少的蛋白?


我的配方(几乎所有的法式配方)使用大个鸡蛋的蛋白。




What is the average weight of a largeegg white?
30 to 33 g per egg white.


通常大个鸡蛋的蛋白是多重?


通常一颗大蛋的蛋白是重30-33克




Can I use ‘Egg Beaters’ or ‘Simply EggWhites’ or other pre-separated egg whites sold in cartons?


我能使用‘Egg Beaters’ Egg Beaters是处理过的蛋白。里面添加了维生素和植物胶。还有盐和洋葱粉。)or ‘Simply Egg Whites’ Simply Egg Whites应该是指直接已从蛋里取的蛋白,添加了维生素等。)


?



I have tried pre-separated egg whites with very inconsistent results. I knowother bakers who tried to use them as well without success. Maybe it’ll workfor you, but it’s more likely that it won’t. Separate your own eggs, it’s easy.


我有试过用“预分离蛋白”产生了很多不太好的效果。我知道其它的烘焙者尝试使用“预分离蛋白”也同样都失败了,也许您可以成功,但大部份是失败的,自己分离蛋白吧, 更容易成功。




If I can’t use egg beaters, whatdo I do with all the leftover egg yolks?
There are many things you can do with leftover egg yolks. Fresh pasta is one of my favorites, but youcan also make homemade mayo or aïolihollandaise sauce, creamy desserts such as crème brûléeor zabaglione, and many other recipes. Here’s a very useful resource that listsrecipes according to the number of egg yolks you need to make them: Recipes to Use Up Extra Egg Yolks.


如果我不能用“egg beaters”,如何处理多余的蛋黄?(外国人很节约啊!)


剩下的蛋黄可以用来做很多事。我最喜爱的是意大利面条,您还可以用来做梅奥,酱油,奶油甜点,或意大利菜肴和许多其它的食谱(猪猪觉得蛋达水和虎皮卷,蛋黄酱都不错)这里有个使用蛋黄的食谱链接。Recipes to Use Up Extra Egg Yolks.




What type of food coloring should Iuse?
Gel or powdered food colorings are preferable because liquid food coloringshave less coloring power, so you need to add more to reach the right color andrisk adding too much moisture to the batter. I like the Ateco gel kits or Chefmaster powdered kits.


我要使用哪种食用色素?


膏状或粉状食用色素是最适合的,因为液态色素的上色效果较差,所以您需要添加更多的色素才能达到理想的色泽,那样的话就会添加更多的水份进入面糊。我喜欢Ateco 膏状色素套装 or Chefmaster 色素粉套装.




Is the use of cream of tartarnecessary?
Cream of tartar is added to egg whites to help stabilize them and give themvolume and strength. I personally never use cream of tartar (it’s not essentialto the macaron recipe), but if you have trouble getting volume when you beatthe egg whites, or if you feel like you never get the right batter consistency,try adding cream of tartar (1/8 teaspoon for each white) once the whites arefoamy, before adding sugar.


有必要使用塔塔粉吗?(猪猪觉得这里用蛋白粉更健康)


塔塔粉加入蛋白中可以增加蛋白的稳定性和持久性。我个人从来不使用塔塔粉(马卡龙的配方中这个不是必需品)但如果您觉得打发蛋白相对困难,可以放少许放入待打发的蛋白中.或者您无法拌到面糊到理想的状态,那么当蛋白打发起泡后,尝试加少许塔塔粉(每颗蛋白放1/8茶匙)然后再添加糖。




Is the use of powdered sugarnecessary? Can I use a substitute? Can I reduce the sugar quantity?
Yes, powdered sugar is necessary, you can’t substitute it for   otherkind of sugar. You can play around withthe sugar quantity, but not significantly as a fair quantity is needed tocreate the balance needed to get the best macaron texture. This article explains the mystical union of sugar andegg whites (via BraveTart).


一定要使用糖粉吗?我能使用其它代替吗?我可以减少糖量吗?


是的,糖粉是必须的,你不能使用其它糖类代替。你可以尝试改变糖的份量,但要注意不要过量减糖,因为适量的糖的含量才是组成马卡龙的最佳组织的关键。这篇文章解释了,糖粉和蛋白的秘密。This article explains the mystical union of sugar andegg whites (via BraveTart).




Do all brandsof powdered sugar work? Is it ok if it contains cornstarch?


Yes, allbrands of powdered sugar contain cornstarch. Low-cost dollar brands will risethe amount of cornstarch they add to the sugar to keep the cost down, so it’snot recommended to use those brands to make macarons. Use a popular brand, butnot one without cornstarch as a little of it is good,according to Hélène Dujardin, to help balance moisture and ensure sturdy shells.


是不是所有品牌的糖粉都可以使用?可以使用含玉米淀粉的糖粉吗?


是的,所有品牌的糖粉都含有玉米淀粉,为了使造价便宜,越廉价的糖粉就添加越多的玉米淀粉。


所以不推荐大家使用那些价格低廉品牌的糖粉制作马卡龙。使用知名大众品牌,但也不要使用纯糖粉,因为少量的玉米淀粉可帮助去除湿气和确保马卡龙组织的坚固。




What is almond meal? Is it the same asalmond flour?
Yes it is. Almond meal or flour is simply almonds that have been ground veryfinely. Here’s an example of what you should look for.Leftover almond meal should be kept in an airtight bag or container in thefridge so it doesn’t turn rancid.


什么是杏仁肉?和杏仁粉相同吗?


是的,杏仁肉和杏仁粉同样都是磨制成很细的粉状。 这里有个样版,用不完的杏仁肉/粉应该保存在一个密封包或是瓶子内,放在冰箱冷藏,以免受潮。 




My almond meal/flourlooks wet/oily. Can I still use it?
Yes you can, but you should dry it first or it could cause you trouble makingperfect macarons. Here’s a simple explanation and method (from book Les Petits Macarons: Colorful French Confections toMake at Home): “If you store your flour in the refrigerator orfreezer, drying it before using – to remove any moisture from storage – willimprove the structure and shape of your macarons and reduce the risk of cracks.To dry your almond flour, preheat the oven to 200°F [95°C]. Spread the almondflour on a baking sheet and bake it for 30 minutes. Remove the flour from theoven and let it cool completely before proceeding with the recipe.”


我的杏仁粉看起来潮湿/出油?我还能用吗?


是的你可以用,但是你要先把它烘干,不然就无法做出完美的马卡龙。这里是一个简单的解释和方法(来自书籍: Les Petits Macarons: Colorful French Confections toMake at Home)假如你将杏仁粉放在冰箱里,在使用前将它烘干。去除湿气可以使马卡龙的组织和外形更加完美,也减少外壳开裂的出现。如何烘干杏仁粉?在制作马卡龙前,预热烤箱至95°C, 将杏仁粉放在烤盘中平铺并拨开,烘烤约30分钟,将烤盘取出让至自然冷却。




Can I use nuts other than almond tomake macarons?
Yes you can, but, says Hélène Dujardin of Tartelette, who regularly teaches macaronclasses, “Try to keep a 50% ratio of almonds to other nuts. Almonds are theleast oily of all nuts and they will keep the batter to the right consistency.”Try hazelnuts, peanuts, pecans orpistachios for different and tasty results.


我可以使用其它坚果来制作马卡龙吗?


是的你可以的,教马卡龙课的Hélène Dujardin of Tartelette老师说过:“保持50%的杏仁粉和其它坚果粉,杏仁是所有坚果类中含油含最少的而且其面糊更适合做马卡龙,你可以尝试用榛果,花生,山核桃和开心果,或其它不同的坚果来尝试不同口味。 




Can I grind my own almonds/nuts?
Of course you can, if you don’t mind the extra work. Blanched almonds are best,but raw almonds work too, although their brown skin will alter the color ofyour shells. To grind the almonds/nuts, weigh them whole, then add them to afood processor along with the powdered sugar (which will prevent your nutsturning into butter). Process until very smooth, then sift as the reciperequires.


我能自己磨杏仁粉或是使用其它坚果粉吗?


你当然可以的,如果你不怕麻烦的话,去皮的杏仁是最好的,有皮杏仁同样可以,但它表皮的自然棕色会使你的马卡壳失所有鲜艳的颜色。磨杏仁粉或坚果粉的方法,首先称出它们的全部重量,和糖粉混合后,再把它们放至食物搅拌机中搅拌。如果不加糖粉的话,坚果类会在搅拌过程中出油,变成膏状。将杏仁粉+糖粉打至细腻后,再过筛称出配方中需要的份量。 




What if I’mallergic to nuts? Can I still make macarons?
Yes, you can. There are many nut-free macaron recipes out there, and here arethe ones I’m inclined to trust the most.


·Nut-Free Macarons, made with pumpkin seeds (Brave Tart)


·Nut Free French Macarons, made with coconut & black sesameseeds (Baking Obsession)


·Coconut Macaron with Lime and White Chocolate Ganache (Gourmeted)


I hear authorJill Colonna has also published a quinoa-based macaron recipe in herbook, Mad About Macarons.


如果我对坚果过敏,我还能制作马卡龙吗?


是的可以的,这里有很多不需坚果的马卡龙配方,这里有很好的配方


南瓜子马卡龙  


椰子粉和黑芝麻马卡龙


可可马卡龙和白巧甘纳许




About theEquipment


关于工具


Parchment paper or Silpats?
Some prefer Silpats (silicon mats), others parchment paper. Personally, Ifind that silicon mats seems to stick to delicate macaron shells more easily. Ialways use parchment paper with good, consistent results (and you can reuse thesame parchment paper sheets many times before throwing them away). I alwaysuse unbleached parchment paper.


油纸(不粘布)  硅胶烤垫?(这里我们结合国人的习惯稍做修改)


有些人喜欢用硅胶垫,有的人喜欢用油纸(不粘布)。我觉得硅胶垫更容易粘住马卡龙的底部,所以我总是使用油纸(不粘布),而且每次烤出来的效果都很棒。(你可以将油布反复使用很多次), 我一直使用未漂白的油纸(不粘布)




Can I usebutter instead of parchment paper?
I wouldn’t recommend it. Because of the macarons’ delicate nature, it oftenhelps to be able to lift off the parchment paper (or silicon mat) to peel itoff the shells. Plus, using butter would change the taste of the shells (whichcontain no fat).


我能使用涂抹黄油来代替使用油纸(不粘布)吗?


我不推荐那样,因为马卡龙的组织很娇贵,易碎,使用油纸(不粘布)将使马卡龙很轻易的从纸上或硅胶垫上剥离出来。涂油有可能会改变马卡龙外壳的风味(马卡龙本身是不含油脂的)




Can I use wax paper / aluminum foil?
No, please don’t.


我能使用腊纸或铝纸吗?


不,请不要。




Which pastry tip is best?
Use a pastry tip with a round opening of about 1/2”-3/4” in diameter. Goodexamples are Ateco Plain Pastry Tubes, sizes 67 or 8. They cost about $1.50 each, or you can buy a full set.


什么样的挤花嘴是最好的?


使用一圆头挤花嘴,大约1/2”-3/4” 或者你可以买一整套的.




What pastry bags do you use?


Any reusable pastry bag will do, and I would choose a bigger size (14” to 18”),which allows you to transfer more batter (or all of it) at once. Also, chooseone that is lined with plastic so you can clean it easily (see Ateco Plastic-Coated Decorating Bag). I admit that I alsolike the convenience of disposable pastry bags. They are cheap and easy to use.


你使用什么样的挤花袋?


任何可重复使用的挤花袋都可以,我会选择大一点的尺寸。那样可以让你一次装入所有的面糊,做的更快一些。我更喜欢使用一次性裱花袋,它们便宜而且容易使用。





Do I reallyneed to use a stainless steel bowl? Will aluminum or plastic bowls do?
I highly recommend it using stainless steel. A good stainless steel cul-de-poule is very versatile in the kitchen andwill last you a lifetime. You don’t need a whole set, just one large bowl and you’ll be fine for mostkitchen tasks. Says Stephanie Jaworski of Joy of Baking: “Stainless steel (…) does a good jobof whipping and stabilizing the egg whites. Don’t use an aluminum bowl as itgives the beaten egg whites a grayish tinge as some of the aluminum does comeoff during beating. Plastic and glass are not good surfaces either as thewhites tend to slip down the sides of the bowl and plastic attracts greasebecause of its porous surface.” If your bowl is just slightly greasy (whichisn’t always noticeable to the eye or touch), it will prevent your egg whitesfrom rising properly.


我需要使用不锈钢盆吗? 使用铝制或塑料盆可以吗?


我强烈推荐使用不锈钢盆,一个优质的不锈钢盆是可多用途的,而且可以终生使用。你不需要全套设备,只是一个大盆。除了做马卡龙,你还可以用来做任何的厨房家务。不锈钢盆是打发蛋白最好的容器。不要使用铝盆,因为在打蛋头触碰盆内的时侯,会有一些铝屑会掉出来,塑胶盆和玻璃盆的表面也不适合。假如你的盆仍然有污迹(这些是用肉眼或触摸感觉不出来的)那就将影响蛋白的打发。




But, won’t myelectric beater scratch the stainless steel bowl?
Stainless steel is a very resistant surface. Although it’s true that, with use,it will show a slight patina, it won’t scratch per se, meaningnothing can penetrate stainless steel deeply. That’s why it’s the favorite workingsurface in professional kitchens.


 但是,我的电动打蛋器会刷伤我的不锈钢盆?


不锈钢盆的表面非常坚固,使用这个是会一些轻微的刮痕,但不锈钢是非常坚固耐磨的,那是为什么不锈钢是厨房里最好的厨具材料。 




What kind ofbaking sheet is best? Do I need to buy an expensive one?
Quality isn’t as important as quantity. Because you’ll always cover the bakingsheets with parchment paper, you don’t need top notch nonstick surfaces. Yourgood old battered sheets will do, but if you’re going to make macarons often,make sure you have at least 4 baking sheets (all of the same size), as eachsheet much be doubled. One batter recipe will fill at least two sheets, sohaving two sets of sheets ready to use will allow you to pipe all your shellsat once. If you need to buy baking sheets, here’s a good example of a basic and inexpensive, but good quality, baking sheet.


什么样的烤盘是最好的?我需要买一个贵的吗?(国内烤盘便宜,亲们别被误导)


质量不比数量重要,因为你总是要用油布盖上烤盘上了。你不需要买一个防粘的烤盘,你旧的烤盘也可以使用,但是你如果经常制作马卡龙。你要有4个同样尺寸的烤盘。因为每个烤盘必须配对。一个好的配方通常都可以挤出两盘马卡龙。所以有两张烤盘可以让你制作好面糊后,马上挤另一盘。如果你需要购买烤盘,这里是一个价廉物美的烤盘样版。


 


Why do I needto double the baking sheets?
Doubling the baking sheets prevent the bottom of the shells to bake tooquickly, which would make it too hard by“macaron standards”. It also favors the formation of the infamous feet (orcrown), which is another macaron standard that can be frustratingly hard toget. Get there quicker by doubling your baking sheets.


为什么我要相叠烤盘?(推荐大家使用重钢烤盘,厚度足够.)


相叠两张烤盘可以防止马卡龙壳的底部被烤的太快。




原文:http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_b651441a0102v0an.html

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